Students of 12th Commerce are searching for Punjab board are finding the syllabus for the same, can check the details from here. The official website of PSEB is www.pseb.ac.in.
SO if you are going to check the details from here. We will provide you all the details of your syllabus. The main subjects in the Commerce like Business , Economics etc. The preparation of the exam in PSEB must be done with the knowledge of syllabus. Please check the details of syllabus.
Studying in a Board class is not a cake walk. The students must keep an eye on the syllabus & the topics so that they can check the syllabus & score well in the exam If you are a serious students then you must check the syllabus more precisely so that you will be able to score your aim.
Also Read :- Punjab Board 12th Science Syllabus 2018
All of us study with a reason, if you have selected commerce in the 12th stream then you must have thought about your future for the same.
Punjab State Intermediate Comm Syllabus All Subjects Business , Commerce & Economics 2018 Latest Pattern
PSEB has updated the syllabus on it official website for the students. If you are going to apply for the same, then you must have know this. The syllabus has been designed for the students or better understanding of the topics.
PSEB Intermediate Mathematics Syllabus 2018 Unit wise Pattern
Mathematics is an optional syllabus for the students who are trying to get the details from here. If you are going for maths then we are going to provide you all the details of syllabus for you.
|Name of the Unit||Topics|
|Unit I: Relations and Functions|| Relations and Functions|
Types of relations: Reflexive,symmetric , transitive and equivalence relations . One to one and onto functions , composite functions , inverse of a function. Binary operations .
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Definition,range, domain, principal value branches . Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions . Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions
|Unit II: Albegra|| Matrices|
Concept, notation, order , equality , types of matrices , zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices . Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations . In vertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).DeterminantsDeterminant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants , minors,
cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of
linear Syllabus for Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrices
| Unit III:|
| Continuity and Differentiability|
Continuity and differentiability , derivative of composite functions, chain rule , derivatives of
inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivatives. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms . Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’ s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.Applications of DerivativesApplications of derivatives: Rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions , tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).IntegralsIntegration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type to be evaluated.
Definite integrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).
Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integralApplications of the IntegralsApplications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines , arcs of circles/parabolas/ ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable)Differential EquationsDefinition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type
| Unit IV : Vector|
Three- dimensional Geometry
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector . Direction cosines/ratios of
vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar , position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vector s, projection of a vector on a line . Vector (cross) product of vectors.
Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points . Cartesian and vector equation of a ine, coplanar and skew lines , shortest distance between two lines . Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane
| Introduction, related terminology such as constraints , objective function, optimization,|
different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems , mathematical formulation of L.P
. problems , graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivia
| Unit VI:|
| Multiplication theorem on probability . Conditional probability , independent events|
, total probability , Baye’s theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution,
mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution
Punjab State Twelfth Accounts Syllabus 2018 & Marking Scheme
With the fast changing economic scenario and business environment in a state of continuous flux, elementary business education along with accountancy as the language of business and as a source of financial information has carved out a place for itself at the Senior Secondary stage. Its syllabus content should give students a firm foundation in basic accounting principles and methodology
|Name of the Unit||Topics|
| Unit I:|
Introduction to Accounting
|Accounting – Meaning, Objectives, Accounting as source of information, Internal and External users of accounting information and their needs.|
| Unit II:|
Theory Base of Accounting
|Accounting Concepts: Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect, Revenue Recognition (Realisation), Matching, Accrual, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism, Materiality.|
| Unit III:|
Recording of Business Transactions
|Origin of Transactions – Source documents and Vouchers, Preparation of vouchers; Accounting equation approach – Meaning and Analysis of transactions using accounting equation; Rules of debit and credit.|
| Unit IV:|
Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors
|Trial Balance: Meaning, Objectives and Preparation|
| Unit V:|
Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves
|Depreciation: Meaning and Need for charging depreciation, Factors affecting depreciation, Methods of depreciation — Straight line method, Written down value method (excluding change in method), Method of recording depreciation – charging to asset account, creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account; Treatment of disposal of an asset|
| Unit VI:|
Accounting for Bills of Exchange Transactions
|Bills of exchange and Promissory note: Definition, Features, Parties, Specimen and Distinction.|
| Unit VII:|
| Unit VIII:|
Accounts from Incomplete Records
| Unit IX:|
Computers in Accounting
| Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System (AIS).|
Applications of computers in accounting: – Automation of accounting process, designing accounting reports, MIS reporting, data exchange with other information systems.Comparison of accounting processes in manual and computerised accounting, highlighting
advantages and limitations of automation.Sourcing of accounting system: Readymade and customised and tailor-made accounting system.Advantages and disadvantages of each option.
| Unit X:|
Accounting and Database System
| Accounting and Database Management System.|
Concept of Entity and Relationship: Entities and relationships in an Accounting System:
PB 12th Board Business Studies Syllabus 2018 Question paper
Business is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. To understand the framework in which a business operates, a detailed study of the organisation and management of business processes and its interaction with the environment is required.
| Name of the Unit|| Topics|
|Unit I: Nature and Significance of Management|
|Unit II: Principles of Management|
|Unit III: Business Environment|
|Unit IV: Planning|
|Unit V: Organising|| Meaning and importance.|
| Unit VI:|
| Unit VII:|
| Meaning, importance and principles.|
Elements of Direction:
|Unit VIII: Controlling|
| Unit IX:|
| Unit X:|
| Unit XI:|
| Marketing – meaning, functions, role.|
| Unit XII:|
| Unit XIII:|
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